Summary – Hashing is used for quicker access to the elements. The effectiveness of the hash algorithm employed affects how efficiently data is mapped. A string value is calculated by the method from a file with a defined size. It is packed with information that has been reduced to a brief fixed key or value.
The word Hashing algorithms explain that they are encryption algorithms. Though, there is a little of which is used more often than others. The most common hashing algorithms might be consisting of MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2, NTLM, and LANMAN.
A given key is transformed into another value through the process of hashing. The new value is produced using a hash function in accordance with a mathematical method. A hash value or simply a hash is the output of a hash algorithm.
1 MD5: Message Digest set of rules considers this as the fifth version. 128-bit outputs is generally made by MD5. It was until the demerits of the inside of the set of rules started to be explored. And it has to be noted that manydrawbacks were collisions. Due to these issues, the MD5 got out of common use.
2 SHA-1: the Secure Hash Algorithm standard considers it as the second one version. The SHA-zero being the first. 160-bit outputs is the featureof SHA-1 hashing algorithm. It is also one of the foremost algorithms which started to update MD5. The updates were done after finding the vulnerabilities. It gained massive use and acceptance by the users. FIPS 140 compliant hashing algorithm was the designation assigned to it.
3 SHA-2: it is nothing but a collection of hashing algorithms, which incorporates SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-224, and SHA-512. When compared with SHA-1 algorithms these SHA-2 algorithms are known to be more stable, but it has not gained any significant use.
4 LANMAN: It was utilized by systems to save passwords. To create hash it used DES algorithms. LANMAN’s implementation of the DES set of rules isn’t very secure which creates trouble therefore it is more prone to attacks. The password hashes of LANMAN can be configured in a few hours.
5 NTLM: authentication is granted when the NTLM set of rules is used for password hashing. The hashing algorithm of NTLM follows the algorithm of the LANMAN.
There are many styles of hashing algorithms, amongst them are Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA) 1 and 2 and Message Digest 5 (MD5). If there is any minor change in the data than it would result in a difference in the hash values.
Since the encryption is critical for the protection of data and working with computer systems. To make sure that the data has not tampered it is very important to prove that nobody has modified it. This is the condition where the hashing algorithms come in to use.
Now to understand the functionality in a simpler way it should be noted that hash is a unidirectional function that modifies the information in a different manner, which in turn provides a given hash result. Apart from being one-way the hash, have many other features:
The features are being listed below for better understanding:
1 They do the function of conveying the output of a hard and fast duration.
2 Their feature is to be rapid and efficient when it comes to computation.
3 They must be infeasible to invert when it comes to being computational.
4 Being collision-free is another feature
The hashing algorithm’s function takes the input of any length and then as a result produces a set-duration string. This enables to use of the hash feature for having passwords which might be very small or to use in the entire set of documents.
For fast and efficient in the algorithm and it’s working the .NET Framework is used which does present very efficiency, this feature enables them to be used and making them advantageous for several applications.
The dimensions of the hash are the most essential parts of hash features which should be always remembered. It gets difficult to alter the characteristics when the larger hash is used. And as it has been stated above that the feature is collision-free.
Multiple values can provide the result which is the same hash because of hash functions that have a set output but the inputs are unlimited. Therefore, because it’s way beyond the feature and it is extremely difficult to locate the inputs. And it has to be considered that these do produce hashes that tally with the fact there are so many possible hash values.
Hashes then serve as the fingerprint for the original data because of this reason and provide data from being hacked. Assume that the fingerprint would not match if the information provided changes and it is not viable that any other resources would result in any form of an identical fingerprint.
There is another scenario where the use of the hash is unusual for a person who would be demonstrating the better skill of some of the fragments of records without being disclosing by any virtual or other methods of that statistics. Let us assume an example to understand the facts better.
The user could share the real password to show a password, or the user can produce and share the hash of that particular password. For Web page authentication this method finds useful. The reason behind this is that there is no need for the server to shop the actual password, there is a need for the most effective hash.
The MD5 algorithm might be the most commonly used hash function. There are some drawbacks and few partial collisions are seen in MD5. Moreover, it does not always withstand future hacks as the abilities of the hardware increases.
But despite the above features, it is the most widely and commonly used hashing algorithm.
This algorithm was designed with the aid of the National Security Agency. It is known as the SHA algorithm. It was published similarly to that of NIST as FIPS PUB 180.
It was designed to be compatible and used with the DSS, which means Digital Signature Standard. A 160-bit hash value is produced by this type of hashing algorithm.