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The function that is used to map any data is known as a Hash Algorithms. The values which are being used in the hash function are known as hash values. It is based on **public-key encryption**. The data should be divided into different blocks for using hash algorithm values. The blocks should have a fixed size. The blocks which are used are known as data blocks.

There are different types of hash algorithms like Secure hash algorithms (SHA), Message digest (MD) algorithms, Whirlpool, RSA, RACE integrity Primitives evaluation message digest (RIPEMD). The process of hash algorithm functions for getting the final hash is known as “the avalanche effect”. The process will start from padding the message and gives the output with the final hash.

**SHA-1 is a part of Cryptography. SHA-1 stands for Secure Hash Algorithm 1.** SHA-1 was first published in 1995. The designer of SHA-1 is the National Security Agency, United States. It is a hash cryptography function. The function of SHA-1 is taking input values and producing a 160-bit hash value. This is known as a message digest. Since 2005 SHA-1 is not considered for security purposes.

SHA-1 stop professionally in 2011. SHA-1 is used while entering a password on the login page of any website. This is the method of securing the information on your website. You will not be able to see the working of the SHA-1 but it will work in background and secures your password details.

__Applications of SHA-1__

**–** It is used in cryptography. SHA-1 form is used in TLS and SSL protocols. It works as the hash algorithms by the US government which is used in the law department. The law department of the US government uses the application in cryptographic algorithms for protecting some of the information. Digital Signature Standard is the primary function of SHA-1

**–** SHA-1 is used in data integrity. It is used to identify that the data is changed or not because of accidental corruption.

**SHA-2 stands for Secure Hash Algorithm 2.** This was first published in 2001. SHA-2 is developed by the National Security Agency (NSA). SHA-2 is the group of the cryptographic hash algorithm. SHA-2 includes 6 different functions. This is developed in the replacement of SHA-1. Some of the applications like TLS, **SSL**, PGP, SSH, etc., using SHA-2. This provides better security and protection than SHA-1.

You need to reissue the certificate for updating SHA-2 in your system. SHA-2 consists of different size hashes such as 224-, 256-, 384-, and 512-bit. The structures of different sizes of a hash are almost similar. SHA-224 and SHA-384 is the smaller version of SHA-256 and SHA-512. FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) is used to generate the initial values. US patent consists of SHA-2 under them. In the present time, it is the best security and **encryption **system.

**SHA-256 comes under the SHA-2 hash algorithm**. SHA-256 was the successor of SHA-1 and now it is the part of SHA-2. It is a digitalize signature for the data set which secures and encrypts the information and data. The algorithm symbols should be perfectly written. Even if one symbol is changed the whole value of the hash algorithm is changed. This will save the original form of data. This is one of the strongest hash function algorithms until now.

__Steps of hashing SHA-256__

Pre-processing

**–** First step is to develop padding the message. We need to specify the padded message comes from the system.

**–** Second step is to write the message in blocks.

**–** Third step is the initiation of hash values.

As we have discussed above **SHA-1** was established by the US government. It is MD5 in nature. In this, the message will be in 160-bit of the hash value. It shows a 40-digit long message. But currently, SHA-1 stops working due to security reasons. Since 2005 people do not belive in the security of SHA-1.

**SHA-2** replaced SHA-1 which is also developed by the US government. SHA-2 is basically a family algorithm. It consists of 6 different hash functions. The hash values in SHA-2 are different that is 224, 256, 384 and 512.

**SHA-256** is the part of SHA-2. It is the strongest hash algorithm that functions properly b and strongly. It is one of the best hash algorithms for security and protection.

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